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Stainless steel downloads

General

Stainless Steel for a Sustainable Future
Stainless Steel for a Sustainable Future
11/02/2014
The animation and brochure, issued by Team Stainless, show how stainless steel contributes to a sustainable world in areas including transportation, healthcare, power and water supply and food.

View the interactive animation

Stainless Steel Service Pipes: A proven solution to water loss and water quality everywhere
released in 2018
Time to address a global issue
Water leakage is a global problem which is quickly escalating to a crisis in many parts of the world. Some cities are now perilously close to running out of water.
Safe Food Preparation Using Stainless Steel
07/01/2016
This brochure, issued by Team Stainless, summarises the conclusions of an independent report which confirms that stainless steel continues to be safe to use for food preparation.
Sustainable Stainless Steel Transit Station Design
released in 2012
Wrapped with Stainless Steel: Sustainable Facade and Roof - Chinese
released in 2012
Designing on the Waterfront - Avoiding corrosion failures with metal - Chinese
released in 2012
Stainless Steel Inspires Design Metamorphosis
released in 2009
Deicing Salt - Recognizing The Corrosion Threat
released in 2009
Stainless Steel Reinforcing Bars (rebars)
released in 2007
Stainless Steel Pipe - The clear Choice for Pure and Reliable Water Systems
released in 2007
Successful Stainless Swimming Pool Design
released in 2005
The Evolution of High Performance Stainless Steels
released in 1993

Articles

Practical Guidelines for the Fabrication of Austenitic Stainless Steels
04/03/2021
Tapping into stainless steel
03/03/2021
Italian design has always been synonymous with style and luxury, with a flair for making the functional beautiful. Whether Vespa or Ferrari, Benetton or Gucci, furniture or eyewear, Italian style imbues a touch of bellezza to all facets of life. Italian bathrooms and kitchens are no different. Sleek, moly-containing stainless steel fittings also contribute to the tradition of combining utility with elegance and glamour.
Hudson Yards: from railyard to riches
03/03/2021
The largest private development in US history, Hudson Yards boasts a modern, sustainable design. Its prime location near the Hudson River in New York City comes at the price of exposure to both marine and de-icing salts. With corrosion resistance in mind, stainless steel emerges as an integral part of the mini-city, most notably in an interactive centerpiece called the "Vessel."
Winds of change
03/03/2021
How can a building with a roof as thin as paper withstand typhoon force winds? A new airport in Qingdao, China, shows the world how it's done: with molybdenum- alloyed stainless steel. Known for its famous beer, Qingdao is also a major industrial and financial center. With its new infrastructure, the city hopes to attract more air travelers. The star- shaped airport features the world's largest continuously welded stainless steel roof, just 0.5 millimeters thick.
Flipping the Scripps
03/03/2021
The Ellen Browning Scripps Memorial Pier, managed by Scripps Institute of Oceanography, is one of the world's largest research piers. Since its initial construction in 1916, scientific experiments at the pier have furthered understanding of global oceans. Replacing the pier's railings with Type 316L stainless steel posts and cable infill ensures that the research projects can continue safely into the future.
Swiss Army Knives still cut it
03/03/2021
From preparing meals around a campfire in the wilderness to fixing a faulty toaster in a city apartment, the multi-purpose Swiss Army Knife embodies both adventure and reliability in a pinch. With the help of molybdenum, this durable product "still cuts it" and remains popular around the world.
Saving Fallingwater
03/09/2020
What was intended to be a weekend retreat for a wealthy Pittsburgh department store magnate and his family, "Fallingwater" now stands as one of the most iconic tributes to architect Frank Lloyd Wright. Molybdenum-alloyed Type 316L stainless steel plays a small but crucial role in preserving one of the greatest buildings of all time.
The Getty Center’s resilience
03/09/2020
Perched high on a hill above Los Angeles, the Getty Center holds some of the world's greatest artwork. Just as impressive as the artwork is the pioneering resilience and sustainability of the architecture on this monumental site. Rough-cut travertine stone sets the theme on the outside, both as wall cladding and pavement. Supporting and anchoring the heavy stone façade, molybdenum-containing Type 316 stainless steel has an invisible but critical role.
Kindred Spirits in stainless steel
03/09/2020
Almost 200 years ago, two tragedies on opposite sides of the Atlantic Ocean gave way to an unforgettable act of kindness. A stainless steel sculpture in Midleton, Ireland, now pays homage to that kindness. Nine eagle feathers, reaching over six meters high, celebrate a gift from the Choctaw Nation of the southeastern United States to the Irish during the Great Potato Famine. The sculpture is a reminder that compassion flourishes in even the darkest hours of history. The corrosion resistance of molybdenum-containing stainless steel helps the sculpture and the legacy it represents endure.
Robots, pigs and pipes
03/09/2020
Groundbreaking robots in the UK eliminate the logistical and environmental impacts of gas line excavation by taking measurements from inside the pipe. To withstand the extreme conditions there, 2507 super-duplex stainless steel was chosen for the robots' chassis.
Making eco-friendly waves
03/09/2020
Building high-performance boats requires strong materials. Typically, stainless steel is not even under consideration for ship construction, but that may be changing. In fact, governments and businesses the world over are starting to take an interest in a new, low-maintenance and environmentally friendly ship hull, built entirely from high-strength, molybdenum-containing super- and hyper-duplex stainless steel, at no additional cost.
Making light of heavy vehicles
16/03/2020
The drive to protect the planet for future generations is gathering momentum. Where possible, organizations are striving to reduce their environmental footprints. This is undoubtedly the case in the automotive industry, with initiatives like light-weighting and the development of electric vehicles. Molybdenum-containing steels enable a number of exciting improvements in efficiency, safety, and sustainability in heavy vehicles.
“Each autonomous, and yet together”
16/03/2020
At the inauguration of the Nordic Embassies in Berlin in the autumn of 1999, Queen Margrethe II of Denmark formulated this motto for the future cooperation of the five Nordic countries. Twenty years later, this unique project is still making a statement about international friendship – and the lasting, low maintenance beauty of molybdenum- containing stainless steel.
Supplying water in the desert
16/03/2020
Qatar, which the World Resource Institute lists as the world's most water-stressed country, is currently building a number of mega reservoirs to ensure a safe water supply for its growing population. Molybdenum-containing stainless steel dowel bars are helping to tackle this incredible challenge.
Fascinating fasteners
16/03/2020
The Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Switzerland is one of the world's biggest and most complex scientific instruments. By smashing subatomic particles at unimaginable force, the collider generates data that could help answer some of the fundamental questions of physics and explain life and death of the cosmos. Molybdenum is instrumental in carrying out these revolutionary experiments.
Adding a splash of color
16/03/2020
Who said skyscrapers must all be uniformly gray? Electrochemically colored stainless steel adds some whimsy to Seattle's new Doppler Building. The invigorating stripes of color serve as an antidote to the city's often cloudy skies. Below these stripes, a series of stainless steel sculptures at the building's base demonstrate another artistic application of this unique metal.
Moly to boost batteries?
19/09/2019
When developing sustainable technologies such as renewable energy solutions and electric vehicles, power storage is as crucial as power generation. To this end, improving battery performance is an area of enormous scientific interest. Numerous studies show that molybdenum disulfide composites could play a key role in increasing batteries' electrical power, energy storage capacity, recharging speed and stability.
Stainless in Seattle
19/09/2019
Type 316 stainless steel adorns the face of a new Seattle infrastructure project: an electrical substation that doubles as a public park. As cities grow and global energy demand continues to rise, the new Denny Substation is a welcome glimpse into what a future powered by accessible, sustainable infrastructure might look like.
Floating towards the future
19/09/2019
Like a net frozen in mid-air, a striking footbridge in southern Germany is making a statement about minimalism. This gossamer structure is only possible thanks to the unique characteristics of 2205 duplex stainless steel.
No moly – no life!
19/09/2019
Molybdenum is vital for keeping organisms fit and healthy. In fact, molybdenum is an 'essential trace element', which means human, animal and plant life could not survive without it. Its bio-essentiality derives from molybdenum-dependent enzymes that are required not only for human health, but also for the health of the ecosystem as a whole.
The Duplex Dragon
19/09/2019
Deep within the Tarim Basin of Xinjiang, China, pipelines transport natural gas as it is extracted and refined for distribution throughout the country. However, gas leakage has been a recurrent issue as a result of pipeline corrosion. Enter the 'Pipeline Dragon': constructed entirely of molybdenum-containing 2205 duplex stainless steel, a new pipeline promises to reduce gas leakage, preventing environmental disaster while conserving resources. At 4,500 tonnes, it is the largest single order of duplex stainless steel in China to date.
Restoring the George
18/04/2019
Hundreds of thousands of vehicles hurry across the George Washington Bridge every day. The aging bridge is one of only three ways to enter Manhattan from New Jersey by car, and it sees more vehicle traffic than any other bridge on Earth. But it is in need of critical repairs. Coming to George's aid is Type 316LN stainless steel rebar, which will revitalize the crumbling concrete decks of this most important passageway.
Moly is HIP
18/04/2019
Improving the safety and efficiency of technologies and minimizing their environmental impact often depends directly on the development of better materials. Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) technology has been at the forefront of this area for decades. Recent advances improve the productivity of making HIPed parts and reduce their cost. Molybdenum metal components are crucial to HIP furnace performance.
Moly is a Jack of all trades
18/04/2019
At the ends of the earth, strange machines patrol the oceans in search of oil deposits to drill for. Meanwhile, their cousins stand tall in some of the world's gustiest seas, installing or maintinaining offshore wind turbines. Both of these highly specialized vessels, lifted up by jackup legs, brave extreme conditions on the sea to help meet our global energy demand. But constant exposure to high winds and enormous waves means 'jackups' must be made of strong materials. Molybdenum-containing steel allows these special machines to stand up to the forces of nature, while ensuring the safety of the people who work and live onboard them.
Louvre Abu Dhabi: A rain of light
18/04/2019
In the Louvre Abu Dhabi, stainless steel not only protects precious artwork, but becomes art itself. The museum's breathtaking roof contains molybdenum to withstand one of the world's most corrosive environments. Inside, rays of sunlight dance across surfaces, creating a spectacle unlike any other.
Stainless steel seals the deal
18/04/2019
Beneath the surface, under streets and buildings, an 'invisible' infrastructure humbly helps to make modern life more efficient, convenient and safe; pipelines that transport drinking water, gas, oil and waste water to and from buildings and across cities, countries and continents. Burying these pipes underground protects them from most forms of damage, and saves space above ground. However, ageing, corrosion, wear and ground movement pose challenges to their integrity, and can lead to leaks which are difficult to locate, access and fix. A rubber pipe seal, secured in place from inside the pipe with molybdenum-containing stainless steel expansion rings, is a convenient and durable solution.
Stainless Steel Service Pipes: A proven solution to water loss and water quality everywhere
released in 2018
Time to address a global issue
Water leakage is a global problem which is quickly escalating to a crisis in many parts of the world. Some cities are now perilously close to running out of water.
From rails, to ruins, to rebirth
27/08/2018
The High Line, a truly unique New York City park, started life as a railway thoroughfare from one end of the city to the other, transporting goods high above the congested streets. After years of neglect and deterioration, the High Line has been reinvented as a dazzling, elevated public space, thanks in no small part to molybdenum-containing stainless steel used in its reconstruction.
Supporting communication cables
27/08/2018
Stainless steel lashing wire plays an important part in telecommunication. It keeps aerial cables firmly in place and reduces the risk of cable breaks and service interruptions. Molybdenum-containing stainless steel lashing wire is used particularly in coastal areas to avoid premature corrosion failure of this essential support structure.
New moly-99 sources wanted
27/08/2018
Molybdenum-99 is a vital radioactive isotope used to diagnose and detect a range of diseases, including cardiovascular problems and cancer. Millions of patients benefit from nuclear medical imaging technology every year. However, only a few, mostly very old nuclear research reactors worldwide can produce the isotope, so the reliability of its availability causes some concerns. Therefore, a number of new projects are underway to secure safe and stable long-term supply.
PHS – strong, tough and safe
27/08/2018
Auto bodies are designed to prevent injuries and save lives when an accident occurs. To protect passengers, while keeping weight to a minimum, requires materials of construction that have both high strength and toughness. Press-hardened steel (PHS) provides these properties and has therefore become the backbone of today’s auto body crash structure. As manufacturers push the limits of protection and lightweighting, they are interested in the benefits of molybdenum alloying in this class of steel.
Wine improves with moly and time
27/08/2018
Acid-resistant molybdenum-grade stainless steel vats and related equipment are essential in the production of many alcoholic beverages. They are used in alcoholic fermentation, vinification, aging, storage and transport. Hygienic and easy to clean, they help producers from high end to mass market, creating refined and well-crafted libations.
Safer seas with stainless steel
07/03/2018
Chemical tankers are specialized ships carrying liquid cargoes that may be environmentally hazardous, flammable or highly reactive. They are designed and operated under special rules, and increasingly have built-in molybdenum-containing stainless steel tanks. Sailing around the world, they transport liquid goods safely over long distances. They represent a significant market for duplex stainless steels and molybdenum.
Innovative bridge uses stainless steel
07/03/2018
Iconic bridges that combine cutting edge technology and aesthetic beauty are increasingly used to create visual focal points in city centers, but very few are constructed on modest budgets and ahead of schedule.
MoRe® unique implants
07/03/2018
Molybdenum-based alloys containing rhenium have been used primarily for high-temperature applications. However, the traditional “Mo-50 Re” alloy has now been clinically evaluated for a cardiovascular stent and is certified for this application. Furthermore, an ASTM standard covering its use in implants has been published recently. The alloy’s high strength, excellent toughness, ductility and biocompatibility make MoRe® an excellent alternative to traditional implant materials.
Lighter and safer offshore platforms
07/03/2018
Offshore oil and gas platforms see some of the most demanding environmental conditions for construction materials anywhere. Exposed to extreme weather, wind and waves, these structures must operate safely for decades. The most challenging sites are located in or near the Arctic oceans, where frequent storms intensify the extremely corrosive exposure to seawater. Molybdenum-containing alloys, especially duplex and super duplex stainless steels, last longer than almost all other materials in these difficult situations. One small but critical example is super duplex bolts.
Tank containers shrink the world
07/03/2018
It is no exaggeration to say that the tank container has revolutionized freight transport. From its humble origins, the ISO tank container industry now numbers more than half a million units across the globe. Tank production is growing at nearly twice the rate of the world economy and they are almost always made of molybdenum-containing stainless steel. Such is their popularity that these containers now represent a significant end-use application for molybdenum.
The beginning of life on Earth
09/08/2017
It may not be widely known, but life’s very existence is directly connected to molybdenum. As one of a handful of essential elements, molybdenum helps the human body – and all other living things – perform key life-supporting processes. Molybdenum even played an important role in the very beginnings of life on Earth, billions of years ago.
Mining gold with moly
09/08/2017
Modern electronic gadgets contain dozens of metals crammed into the smallest possible space. The construction is such that they are nearly impossible to disassemble for recycling. Highly reactive supercritical water can facilitate “mining” of precious-metals from this electronic waste. Because of the corrosive process environment, molybdenum containing nickel alloys are needed for the vats.
Molding plastics with molybdenum
09/08/2017
Molybdenum-alloyed mold steels are a key component of plastic injection-molding machines. They must be easy to machine into complex geometries that mirror the finished molding, resist deformation and wear under the stress and abrasion of the process, and be able to maintain a high surface polish for long production runs. Molybdenum is a vital alloying element in meeting these requirements.
Stainless steel stops leaks
09/08/2017
Repair sleeves are found in the tool box of virtually every water utility. They allow quick repair of leaking water pipes without replacing them. Often fabricated from molybdenum-grade Type 316 stainless steel, they reduce water wastage and are yet another way that molybdenum helps sustain Earth’s resources.
Strong sustainable storage tanks
09/08/2017
Duplex stainless steel storage tanks are increasingly being used due to their long, low-maintenance service life. Surprisingly, they can also reduce initial costs for tank owners. The higher strength of duplex grades permits thinner walls requiring less steel. Because costly protective coatings or cathodic protection are not necessary, they can compete on installed cost with carbon steel tanks.
Moly goes to the races
07/02/2017
A race car’s skeleton and many of the forged components, that keep its engine running at top speed, are made of chromoly steel. Even though these grades have been around for many decades, and numerous new materials have been developed since, they still are the materials of choice in critical applications. Molybdenum is therefore a vital component to a racing team reaching its ultimate goal – the winner’s circle.
Two-in-one solar panels
07/02/2017
This innovative hybrid system combines photovoltaic cells with a molybdenum-containing stainless-steel heat exchanger. It produces both electricity and domestic hot water at the same time, greatly increasing the amount of solar energy extracted per square meter.
Tooling around with moly
07/02/2017
Metalworking tools must survive high temperatures, extreme stresses, friction and wear, and still economically produce precision parts from difficult-to-process alloys. In some applications, traditional steel and nickel- alloy tools cannot do the job. Molybdenum metal alloys like TZM and MHC solve this problem, saving material and processing costs, and enabling new and better technologies.
Safer rock climbing
07/02/2017
Climbing a vertical wall, finding the next crack or jut in the rock face, pushing higher with nothing but the body’s strength, are part of the thrill of rock climbing. However, without the aid of safety anchors to catch the climber in the event of a mishap, the sport could be deadly. Both experience and study indicate that molybdenum-alloyed stainless steel anchors play an increasingly important role to protect climbers’ lives.
Low sulfur on the high seas
07/02/2017
Maritime shipping remains one of the most cost-efficient global transport methods, especially compared with air freight. Its rapid growth since the 1970s and the containerisation of cargo have kept pace with the global economy, however this has also increased its environmental impact. New regulations limiting the sulfur content of engine fuel mean that ships must either use cleaner, more expensive fuel, or install equipment to take sulfur out of exhaust gases, a process in which molybdenum plays a key role.
Proving its long-term mettle: Longevity, whole building LCAs, and stainless steel
10/11/2016
This article discusses building sustainability assessment in detail with case study examples.
Credit: Stainless Steel World News, Issue 113, November 2016, pages 14–15, author Catherine Houska, editor Matjaž Matošec
Guide to high-performance alloys
20/09/2016
It can be difficult and time consuming for engineers to find materials properties beyond the basic ones reported in producer data sheets. This is especially true for lesser-used high-performance alloys. The new High-Performance Alloys Database addresses this problem. It contains a large number of materials properties for each of the 100 or so featured alloys, many involving molybdenum.
Molypermalloy sends clear signals
20/09/2016
One of the most important innovations in communications history occurred when telegraph cable designers incorporated loops of wire wound around iron cores into their cables. This “simple” innovation evolved into inductors wound around Molypermalloy Powder cores, which are omnipresent in electronic devices on earth and in space.
Stainless steel sparkles in NYC
20/09/2016
The iconic New York City skyline is celebrated in movies and photos. But as a global financial, cultural and business center, it is also constantly changing – particularly now. Buildings are rising at a breathtaking pace and many feature sustainable designs. Molybdenum-containing stainless steel is often key to making them not only beautiful, but also resilient and durable, thus reducing their carbon footprint.
New horizons for London’s tigers
20/09/2016
ZSL London Zoo is often noted for its architecture as well as its animals. A revolutionary new enclosure, built from molybdenum-containing stainless steel mesh, maintains the Zoo’s proud tradition of innovation. It creates a bespoke environment for Sumatran tigers, meeting all the big cats’ needs.
Wearing moly gets trendy
20/09/2016
In pockets, on noses, wrists and ears, even at the end of a dog lead, molybdenum-containing alloys are part of modern life. This article describes their use in objects designed to entertain, connect, inform, alert, identify, or simply make us stand out!
Drinking water – Saving every drop
26/02/2016
Most people take drinking water for granted, largely unaware of the vast network of pipes connecting the reservoir and treatment plant to the faucet. Life seems unimaginable without it, yet on average more than a quarter of the water distributed by utility companies never reaches a single customer.
Propelling the boating world
26/02/2016
The propeller shaft may be the most important component of any motorized vessel. It drives the propeller, hour after hour, day after day. Molybdenum provides improved strength and corrosion resistance in several high-performance stainless steel grades used in demanding shaft applications.
A stomach of (stainless) steel
26/02/2016
Every day large amounts of food waste accumulate in restaurants, food courts, hotels, supermarkets, hospitals, stadiums and convention centers. Typically this volume goes into the waste bins and has to be hauled away for off-site disposal. Ultra-modern biodigesters, machines with a “stomach” of molybdenumcontaining stainless steel, are revolutionizing the way such waste is handled in institutional settings.
One hundred years of safety
26/02/2016
A gigantic airtight enclosure is under construction at Chernobyl. It is designed to survive temperature extremes, earthquakes and tornados and prevent corrosion in order to protect the environment from the encapsulated but still dangerous reactor. Clad in molybdenum-grade Type 316L stainless steel, the structure will safely contain radioactive dust and debris for more than a century.
Molybdenum’s nuclear mission
26/02/2016
Nuclear power currently supplies some 11% of the world’s energy needs. Without debating its pros and cons, everyone would agree that the spent fuel already in existence from more than 50 years of generation needs safe handling and disposal. Imparting greatly increased corrosion resistance to stainless steel, molybdenum is making a positive contribution to the ongoing safety of spent fuel management throughout the world.
Safe Food Preparation Using Stainless Steel
07/01/2016
This brochure, issued by Team Stainless, summarises the conclusions of an independent report which confirms that stainless steel continues to be safe to use for food preparation.
Molybdenum at work in the dentist’s office
21/09/2015
Dental instruments need to be hard for the dentist to work efficiently and precisely, and tough enough not to break during procedures. At the same time they have to be hygienic, corrosion resistant and easily sterilized. The molybdenum-containing hardenable surgical stainless steel Type 440A fits these requirements and new, even harder and tougher grades are on the horizon.
A breath of fresh air
21/09/2015
Clean air is a basic human need for a healthy life. Yet, advances in living standards (electricity on demand, automobiles, and consumer goods) contribute to air pollution in manufacturing, energy production, and the use of products. As scientists began to understand the connections between air pollution and industrialization, engineers developed technologies to minimize the damage. Molybdenum plays a central role in many of them.
Moly rescues a lady in distress
21/09/2015
Since its dedication in New York harbor on October 28, 1886, The Statue of Liberty has become one of the world’s best-known sculptures. However, after nearly 100 years in the aggressive marine environment, galvanic corrosion between the iron framework and the copper skin caused major structural deterioration. Molybdenum-containing stainless steel played a crucial role in restoring this iconic landmark.
Mobile cranes reach higher
21/09/2015
Today’s global demand to build infrastructure larger, faster and higher challenges crane manufacturers to keep pace by developing more powerful, versatile and cost-effective equipment. Molybdenum-containing high- and ultra-high-strength steels allow them to push performance boundaries to new heights.
A new stainless steel lighthouse
21/09/2015
Lighthouses have been beacons for thousands of years, aiding navigation and guiding mariners to safe shores. New Type 316 stainless steel lighthouses are now making their contribution to safety at sea, reducing maintenance and environmental impact.
Benefits of molybdenum use: The Myllysilta Bridge, Finland
02/04/2015
Duplex stainless steel provides exceptional resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion from chlorides, and is therefore ideally suited to areas exposed to coastal waters and deicing salts. This lifecycle analysis study compared the total environmental impacts of the use of duplex stainless steel containing 3.1% molybdenum to clad the Myllsilta bridge in Finland, compared with mild steel and zinc-epoxy paint. The study found a 62% reduction in global warming potential, a 67% reduction in eutrophication potential and a 38% reduction in non-renewable energy, over the estimated lifetime of the bridge. The selected option also reduced photochemical ozone creation potential by 99%, by dispensing with the need for anti-corrosion paint.
Stainless rebar keeps traffic flowing
04/02/2015
Whether on local streets or major highways, bridges are crucial transportation links – crossing roads, canyons or vast expanses of water. Closing them for repairs causes lengthy delays, time- and fuel-consuming detours and loss of productivity. It is therefore imperative for traffic flow to keep bridges in good condition. Durable molybdenum-containing stainless steel reinforcing bar is increasingly used to extend the service life of new and refurbished bridges, reducing the need for repairs and improving infrastructure investments.
Duplex rigging for glass sails
04/02/2015
Canadian-born California architect Frank Gehry’s project for Fondation Louis Vuitton exhibits unprecedented aesthetic innovation and technological sophistication. The spectacular glass sails of the roof appear so light and airy, in large part, thanks to the delicate high-strength molybdenum-containing duplex stainless steel support structure.
Lighting the way to a greener future
04/02/2015
LEDs are revolutionizing lighting technology. They are more sustainable than traditional lighting sources because they use much less energy and last much longer. At the same time, lighting can be used in completely new ways. Molybdenum plays a key role in making the sapphire substrate of LED devices and is also important as a heat sink in these lights.
Reinforcing cliffs and walls
04/02/2015
Type 316 stainless steel ground and rock anchors keep land from sliding and walls from tumbling. They were used recently to stabilize and reinforce a crucial sea wall in England and an unstable rock face at the Acropolis World Heritage Site in Greece. Molybdenum provides the added corrosion resistance necessary for a long service life even in the most corrosive environments.
Designing a memorial
04/02/2015
Pittsburgh has a new memorial made of stainless steel, glass and stone. The work of art is a tribute to the citizenry of Western Pennsylvania. Its building materials are a reflection of the local surroundings and the industries that shaped the region. Thanks to the use of low-maintenance molybdenum-containing stainless steel the area will be graced with a memorial that is both beautiful and lasting.
Linee Guida Pratiche per la Lavorazione di Acciai Inossidabili Austenitici ad Elevate Prestazioni
20/10/2014
Molybdenum metal coatings punch above their weight
26/08/2014
Molybdenum plays an important role in the performance of piston rings used in combustion engines. Applied as a plasma-sprayed coating, it delivers good wear resistance and better overall performance than materials used in the past.
Molybdenum on point in fencing
26/08/2014
A flèche or a lunge are just two of the many attacking moves in fencing that test the cold steel of foils, epees and sabers, subjecting them to brutal bending stresses. These weapons require flexibility and high toughness to ensure the safety of the fencers. The international standard for competition blades is a molybdenum-containing high-strength stainless steel that meets the challenge.
An ever-changing masterpiece
26/08/2014
If a building becomes architecture, then it is art. (Arne Jacobson)
Tool steels depend on molybdenum
26/08/2014
Many of the best tool steels require molybdenum to increase hardenability and toughness, and to form hard, wear-resistant carbides in the matrix. These attributes make molybdenum-containing tool steels the industry standard.
Wireline for downhole tools
26/08/2014
Wireline is cable used to lower oil- and gas-well tools and measuring equipment downhole. Wireline must be strong, dependable and resistant to the increasingly corrosive conditions encountered in today’s deeper wells. Molybdenum imparts the required corrosion resistance to the stainless steel and nickel alloys used in this application.
3D printing – future of manufacturing?
26/08/2014
Many of the best tool steels require molybdenum to increase hardenability and toughness, and to form hard, wear-resistant carbides in the matrix. These attributes make molybdenum-containing tool steels the industry standard.
Desalination Plants
10/06/2014
Water is essential to life but global supplies are under pressure from population growth and may be unable to sustain total demand by 2025. Desalination plants provide reliable, sustainable supplies of fresh water but need to be constructed from materials that can withstand such hostile environments. This case study explores the sustainability benefits of using molybdenum-containing stainless steel in the construction of seawater desalination plants, greatly increasing resistance to corrosion and enabling cost-effective, reliable operation.
Racing bikes – steel’s great comeback?
18/02/2014
Advanced steels and frame designs may now be heralding a new age of racing bicycles. A UK-based racing team has brought steel frames back into the professional bicycle racing circuit. These new frames utilize high-strength, molybdenum-alloyed maraging steel.
Structural stainless steel
18/02/2014
Decorative stainless steel panels are widely used in façades, roofs and elevators because they are attractive and long-lasting. Increasingly, engineers now use stainless steel for load-bearing structures in challenging environments. In many cases stainless steel is cost-effective if the whole life cycle of the installation is considered.
Coloring the world
18/02/2014
Molybdenum compounds have been used in commercial pigments for over a hundred years. They continue to play an important role in today’s sustainable and environmentally safe colorings.
Keeping it cool
18/02/2014
Molybdenum heat sinks are essential to power semiconductor devices that manage the flow of electricity in electronic equipment because they prevent overheating. Molybdenum’s good thermal and electrical conductivity, combined with its low coefficient of thermal expansion, make it the ideal material for this application.
Stainless steel fish scale façade
18/02/2014
Molybdenum-containing ferritic stainless steel plays an important role in sustainable construction at the new headquarters of the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers in Seattle, Washington. The material was utilized in the innovative façade, which helped the building win many awards for its cost- and energy-saving features.
Stainless Steel for a Sustainable Future
Stainless Steel for a Sustainable Future
11/02/2014
The animation and brochure, issued by Team Stainless, show how stainless steel contributes to a sustainable world in areas including transportation, healthcare, power and water supply and food.

View the interactive animation

Plants need molybdenum
15/08/2013
Molybdenum is an essential trace element for the growth of plants. The amount needed is small, and when required, it can be supplied through specific fertilizers.
Molybdenum scrap saves resources
15/08/2013
A recent study found that about one quarter of the molybdenum used each year is recycled material from scrap sources. The rest is newly mined, primary molybdenum. Scrap therefore plays an important role in meeting demand and contributing to sustainability.
Shale energy revolution
15/08/2013
The world’s recoverable oil and natural gas reserves have increased dramatically in just a few years. Trapped deep underground in layers covering huge areas, shale reserves have only recently become accessible. The combination of two techniques, horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, makes it possible to extract these precious natural resources economically. The United States, a pioneer in this area, has experienced a shale-gas revolution over the last five years. High-strength molybdenum steels are needed to drill the wells and extract the oil and gas.
Protecting vital plant equipment
15/08/2013
Molybdenum-bearing stainless steel enclosures for electrical, electro-mechanical and electronic equipment generally go unnoticed, but are very important. These enclosures are used in chemical plants and at other industrial sites with corrosive environments. They protect vital systems and instruments from chemicals, fumes, moisture and even fires or explosions.

Melting glass with molybdenum
15/08/2013
We prize glass because of its clarity and beauty, and also for its immense versatility. Molybdenum components help to make the glass and glass products used every day. Moly’s high strength at the high glass melting temperature and its resistance to corrosion by molten glass make it the ideal material for this purpose.
Hurricane-proof
15/08/2013
Material longevity and its inherent impact on long-term project sustainability are changing the way buildings are designed. Memorials like the new Four Freedoms Park in New York have to last for hundreds of years. Corrosion resistant 2205 duplex stainless steel was necessary so that the sculptural handrails were as durable as the massive blocks of granite in this highly-acclaimed new monument.
Federal Building, San Francisco
12/07/2013
Sunscreens greatly reduce the need for air conditioning in buildings. The Federal Building in San Francisco was built with computer-controlled stainless steel sunscreens which, together with natural ventilation, reduce the energy needed to cool the building by two-thirds. The molybdenum-containing stainless steel is highly corrosion resistant and is specified for a design life of 100 years.
Preserving Acropolis artifacts
12/02/2013
The thoughts of Socrates and his ancient Greek contemporaries are a foundation of western civilization. The Acropolis and its most famous building, the Parthenon, are physical reminders of our debt to these philosophers. Moly helps to sustain the legacy of these sites in the beautiful new Acropolis Museum, which contains many components made of moly-containing Type 316 stainless steel. The longevity of stainless steel ensures the museum will serve its purpose well for years to come.
Securing molybdenum-99 supply
12/02/2013
The molybdenum isotope molybdenum-99 and its decay cousin technetium-99m are extremely helpful and widely used in medical procedures, for example in the diagnosis of cancer. Current production methods for 99Mo are in question because of aging reactors and the use of weapons-grade uranium. Fortunately, some new methods for producing 99Mo are under development and show great promise. If they are successful, molybdenum can continue to play its life-saving role.
Stainless steel weaves its web
12/02/2013
Stainless steel wire and rod are used to manufacture a wide variety of woven steel mesh products. They are used in many applications ranging from the eye-catching and spectacular to the unobtrusive and utilitarian. Molybdenum contributes to their growing popularity and success by improving corrosion resistance.
High-strength steel – sustainable and money saving
12/02/2013
Molybdenum’s unique properties are often used to deliver sustainability advantages in energy production, energy efficiency, resource conservation and environmental protection. The newly-constructed Friends Arena in Solna Municipality, Stockholm, is a great example of how “a little moly goes a long way” in reducing the environmental impact of a new building and saving cost at the same time.
Super duplex to keep the Vasa safe
12/02/2013
A major historic ship preservation project is currently under way in Stockholm.  The galvanized and epoxy coated mild steel bolts used to hold the ship together after it was raised are failing due to corrosion. Molybdenum is a key alloying element in the high-strength, corrosion-resistant super duplex stainless steel Sandvik SAF 2507TM and Sandvik SAF 2707 HDTM bolts that will hold the great ship Vasa together to achieve a minimum design life of 100 years.
Sustainable Stainless Steel Transit Station Design
released in 2012
Wrapped with Stainless Steel: Sustainable Facade and Roof - Chinese
released in 2012
Designing on the Waterfront - Avoiding corrosion failures with metal - Chinese
released in 2012
Selecting Stainless Steel for Optimum Performance
released in 2010
Molybdenum preserving venice
15/01/2010
For centuries Venice has been fighting nature to keep itself from drowning. It is under attack from rising water, sinking ground, high tides, wind, salt water, and, more recently, erosion caused by the wake of hundreds of motorboats. In the last ten to fifteen years the maintenance team of the city has used moly-grade Type 316 and 2205 stainless steels extensively to strengthen its defense to stabilize walls, replace wrought iron handrails, upgrade service pipes, reinforce or replace bridges and other applications. In this battle, stainless steel often works behind the scenes, embedded in stone or brick. But in some cases it is in plain sight and blends in beautifully with old materials.
Stainless Steel Inspires Design Metamorphosis
released in 2009
Case Study 1: Pittsburgh and Chicago Handrails and Street Furniture
released in 2009
Case Study 2: Minneapolis Exterior Wall Panels and Window Frames
released in 2009
Case Study 3: New York and Miami Light Poles
released in 2009
Case Study 4: Singapore Roofing
released in 2009
Case Study 5: Hong Kong Building Exteriors and Railings
released in 2009
Case Study 6: Canary Islands Railings and Lampposts
released in 2009
Case Study 7: Barcelona Coastal Curtain Wall
released in 2009
Case Study 8: Sao Paulo Building Exterior
released in 2009
Case Study 9: Australian Costal Fence
released in 2009
Case Study 10: New York Pier Railings
released in 2009
Case Study 11: Thames Barrier
released in 2009
Case Study 12: Milan Builden Exterior
released in 2009
Case Study 13: Rio de Janeiro Building Exterior
released in 2009
Case Study 14: New Zealand Coastal Building Exterior
released in 2009
Deicing Salt - Recognizing The Corrosion Threat
released in 2009
Stainless Steel Reinforcing Bars (rebars)
released in 2007
Stainless Steel Pipe - The clear Choice for Pure and Reliable Water Systems
released in 2007
Molybdenum and Stainless Steel - about Mines and Markets
released in 2007
Stainless Steel Evaluation Software Program
IMOA Site and Design Evaluation System
released in 2006
This program is designed to help specifiers select appropriate stainless steels and surface finishes for applications where corrosion staining is aesthetically unacceptable, even if there is no structural deterioration.

It should be read with the IMOA Leaflet "Which Stainless Steel Should Be Specified for Exterior Applications?" (s. above), which explains how surface finish, design, the type of stainless steel, and maintenance influence performance.

You can launch the program right now. It requires Adobe Flash Player 5 or later.

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Software Disclaimer

The International Molybdenum Association (IMOA) and Australian Stainless Steel Development Association (ASSDA) believe that the information presented is technically correct. However, neither IMOA nor ASSDA represent or warrant the accuracy of the information contained in this spreadsheet or its suitability for any general or specific use. The material contained herein is by necessity general in nature; it should not be used or relied upon for any specific or general application without first obtaining competent advice. IMOA, ASSDA, their members, staff and consultants specifically disclaim any and all liability or responsibility of any kind for loss, damage, or injury resulting from the use of the information contained in this software.
[ See also Website Disclaimer ]

Successful Stainless Swimming Pool Design
released in 2005
Which Stainless Steel Should Be Specified for Exterior Applications?
released in 2005
The Evolution of High Performance Stainless Steels
released in 1993

Presentations

Molybdenum and Stainless Steel - about Mines and Markets
released in 2007