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Alloy steel downloads


Molybdenum in Irons and Steels for Clean and Green Power Generation

Case studies

Friends Arena, Stockholm
Molybdenum is an important alloying element in high-strength steel (HSS), which enables lighter and stronger structures than conventional steel. This study looks at the use of HSS in the Friends Arena, Stockholm, which reduced the quantity of steel used for construction by 17% and also cut greenhouse gas emissions by 17% over the lifetime of the stadium.

Conference proceedings

Fundamentals and Applications of Mo and Nb Alloying in High Performance Steels, Volume 2
Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Fundamentals and Applications of Mo and Nb Alloying in High Performance Steels. Held in Jeju Island, South Korea. 24–26 April 2013. Niobium and molybdenum are important alloying elements in steel, improving essential properties such as strength, toughness, as well as corrosion and heat resistance.
Fundamentals and Applications of Mo and Nb Alloying in High Performance Steels
Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Fundamentals and Applications of Mo and Nb Alloying in High Performance Steels. Held in Taipei, Taiwan, 7-8 November 2011. Niobium and molybdenum are important alloying elements in steel, improving essential properties such as strength, toughness, as well as corrosion and heat resistance.


Nant de Drance: a gigantic rechargeable battery
Generating electricity when the sun does not shine or the wind does not blow poses a challenge for the world's transition to renewable power. A twist on a century-old technology offers an elegant solution. Pumped storage hydropower uses gravity to store massive amounts of green energy and generate electricity on demand. At Nant de Drance in the Swiss alps, molybdenum-alloyed high strength steels are crucial to keep electricity flowing.
Molybdenum: essential for wind turbines
To prevent the worst outcomes of climate change, renewable energy sources like wind and solar must more than triple their share of global power production. While molybdenum plays a role in several green technologies, it is particularly crucial in wind power generation. Therefore, as the demand for wind turbines increases, so will the demand for molybdenum in many of their components.
Making light of heavy vehicles
The drive to protect the planet for future generations is gathering momentum. Where possible, organizations are striving to reduce their environmental footprints. This is undoubtedly the case in the automotive industry, with initiatives like light-weighting and the development of electric vehicles. Molybdenum-containing steels enable a number of exciting improvements in efficiency, safety, and sustainability in heavy vehicles.
The Duplex Dragon
Deep within the Tarim Basin of Xinjiang, China, pipelines transport natural gas as it is extracted and refined for distribution throughout the country. However, gas leakage has been a recurrent issue as a result of pipeline corrosion. Enter the 'Pipeline Dragon': constructed entirely of molybdenum-containing 2205 duplex stainless steel, a new pipeline promises to reduce gas leakage, preventing environmental disaster while conserving resources. At 4,500 tonnes, it is the largest single order of duplex stainless steel in China to date.
Molding plastics with molybdenum
Molybdenum-alloyed mold steels are a key component of plastic injection-molding machines. They must be easy to machine into complex geometries that mirror the finished molding, resist deformation and wear under the stress and abrasion of the process, and be able to maintain a high surface polish for long production runs. Molybdenum is a vital alloying element in meeting these requirements.
Moly goes to the races
A race car’s skeleton and many of the forged components, that keep its engine running at top speed, are made of chromoly steel. Even though these grades have been around for many decades, and numerous new materials have been developed since, they still are the materials of choice in critical applications. Molybdenum is therefore a vital component to a racing team reaching its ultimate goal – the winner’s circle.
Mobile cranes reach higher
Today’s global demand to build infrastructure larger, faster and higher challenges crane manufacturers to keep pace by developing more powerful, versatile and cost-effective equipment. Molybdenum-containing high- and ultra-high-strength steels allow them to push performance boundaries to new heights.
Tool steels depend on molybdenum
Many of the best tool steels require molybdenum to increase hardenability and toughness, and to form hard, wear-resistant carbides in the matrix. These attributes make molybdenum-containing tool steels the industry standard.
Molybdenum scrap saves resources
A recent study found that about one quarter of the molybdenum used each year is recycled material from scrap sources. The rest is newly mined, primary molybdenum. Scrap therefore plays an important role in meeting demand and contributing to sustainability.
Shale energy revolution
The world’s recoverable oil and natural gas reserves have increased dramatically in just a few years. Trapped deep underground in layers covering huge areas, shale reserves have only recently become accessible. The combination of two techniques, horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, makes it possible to extract these precious natural resources economically. The United States, a pioneer in this area, has experienced a shale-gas revolution over the last five years. High-strength molybdenum steels are needed to drill the wells and extract the oil and gas.
Protecting vital plant equipment
Molybdenum-bearing stainless steel enclosures for electrical, electro-mechanical and electronic equipment generally go unnoticed, but are very important. These enclosures are used in chemical plants and at other industrial sites with corrosive environments. They protect vital systems and instruments from chemicals, fumes, moisture and even fires or explosions.

High-strength steel – sustainable and money saving
Molybdenum’s unique properties are often used to deliver sustainability advantages in energy production, energy efficiency, resource conservation and environmental protection. The newly-constructed Friends Arena in Solna Municipality, Stockholm, is a great example of how “a little moly goes a long way” in reducing the environmental impact of a new building and saving cost at the same time.