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Architecure, Building & Construction


Whale-sized 3D printed art
Although 3D printing is mostly used for industrial manufacturing, it is also an emerging sculptural technique. In Turin, Italy, two artists chose robotically 3D printed stainless steel to realize a near-life-sized whale sculpture; the ropy structure of the printed welds mimics the texture of a humpback whale’s skin. The 2% molybdenum in Type 316L stainless steel help keep the whales’ rough surface stain-free.
Running smoothly with moly
Friction is the resistance encountered when one surface or object moves against another. Often overlooked, friction is a significant cause of wasted energy. Reducing friction in large-scale processes such as power generation, manufacturing, and transportation could dramatically lower energy usage, costs, and emissions. Molybdenum-based lubricants and molybdenum-alloyed steels are poised to usher in this change.
Sustainable brilliance at Harvard
A groundbreaking stainless steel sunscreen is revolutionizing climate control at one of Harvard University’s largest buildings, keeping it cool in summer and warm in winter. This tensile façade system combines solar control with cutting-edge design and fabrication techniques, utilizing a lace-like Type 316L stainless steel that offers the delicacy and lightness of sheer fabric.
Stainless home heating
Heating water and indoor spaces accounts for almost half of all building energy needs globally. Although electric heat pumps are increasing in popularity, the vast majority of heating relies on the burning of fossil or renewable fuels. Heating methods involving combustion can tax the equipment due to high temperatures and the formation of corrosive byproducts, potentially compromising not only efficiency but also safety. For this reason, modern heating systems increasingly rely on molybdenum-containing stainless steel.
More than meets the Eye
Norway is the world’s leading producer of farmed salmon. The Salmon Eye, a floating event center, is dedicated to the sustainable development of this industry. 6% molybdenum stainless steel is the secret behind the structure’s unblemished metallic finish.
National Salt Satyagraha Memorial
In India’s Gujarat province, two stainless steel beams rise 40 meters into the air, perching a “salt crystal”. This sculpture is a symbol for a pivotal moment in India’s struggle for independence. Molybdenum-containing stainless steel is the ideal material to stand up to the strong salty winds at this coastal location.
Better service lines with moly
Almost nothing is more important than water. Yet, water transmission systems worldwide lose billions and billions of liters of water a year to leakage. The solution to reducing this leakage is multifaceted but replacing existing service lines with molybdenum-containing stainless steel has proven highly successful.
Award-winning bridge
Bridges influence the quality of life for an entire region by providing a way across rivers, ravines, and other obstacles. Duplex stainless steels in bridge design help avoid road closures for both replacement and maintenance. A new bridge spanning one of the world’s largest rivers uses both 2205 and 2507 duplex stainless steel for strength, longevity, and corrosion resistance.
Gardens of stainless steel
Located outside the Chinese city of Nanjing, the Jiangsu Garden Expo recreates famous classical gardens from across Jiangsu province. The 3.5 km2 park is an outstanding example of regenerating a degraded environment into a living museum furnished with hotels, restaurants, and entertainment. Stainless steel features prominently throughout the Expo.
Molybdenum in magnetically shielded rooms
Detecting nature's tiniest magnetic activity for medicine and research relies on suppressing a constant barrage of external magnetic influence. For decades, a molybdenum-containing alloy called mu-metal has been used as a magnetic shielding material due to its ability to divert both the Earth's natural magnetic field and manmade sources. Today, rooms clad in layers of mu-metal and similar alloys provide unfathomable levels of magnetic shielding for procedures that save lives and extend the frontiers of science.
Sluice gates brave the shifting tides
Sluice gates are movable barriers that regulate water levels and flow rates in waterways. In a world of changing climate and increased flooding risks, these gates need to be taller and stronger than ever before. Thanks to their strength and corrosion resistance, molybdenum- containing duplex stainless steels are the ideal construction material.
Printing a stainless steel dragon
Most 3D printed objects are less than 30 cm long. So, how is the 10 m long Oregon Dragon Bench possible? Instead of using powder, the bench was built layer by layer applying a robotic welding technology called "WAAM". Made with 2209 duplex stainless steel weld wire, the Oregon Dragon Bench exemplifies how 3D printed metal structures can do more with less.
Keeping Tabs
Under the guidance of supporting philanthropists, artists and architects, a group of school children turned trash into a timeless memorial. Keeping Tabs holds six million soda tabs, each symbolizing a life lost decades ago. Molybdenum-alloyed stainless steel provides the corrosion resistance to keep this sculpture beautiful and untarnished through the deicing salt-laden winters of the midwestern United States.
Replacing old rail bridges
The historic center of Stockholm, Sweden, stretches over 14 islands. The bridges that connect these islands are in constant use, so any maintenance closures cut off vital transportation arteries. A solution that spares future generations from disruption was therefore crucial for the renovation of the city's busiest rail bridges: the four Söderströms. The new molybdenum-containing duplex stainless steel superstructure will provide enough strength and corrosion resistance to outlast the 120-year design life, with minimal upkeep.
Shenzhen’s secondary water supply systems
One in three people worldwide live without access to clean drinking water. Even major cities with established utilities are projected to fall short of demand for potable water. One of these cities is Shenzhen: China's first free-trade zone and unofficial innovation capital. An ambitious plan specifies molybdenum-containing Type 316 stainless steel distribution systems as a solution to water loss.
Behind the green curtain
For most of human history, construction methods developed in response to the local climatic conditions. But in recent decades, the seemingly infinite availability of energy, labor and building materials led architects, developers and clients to overlook these time-tested techniques. A new plant in Vietnam revisits the region's traditional building methods and combines them with modern materials to create a spectacular and sustainable green wall made of molybdenum-containing stainless steel ropes and nets.
Resurrecting St. Mary’s Cathedral
In a city where Shinto shrines and Buddhist temples abound, a Catholic cathedral is an unexpected sight. Nonetheless, Tokyo's St. Mary's Cathedral is one of the world's most famous churches. Designed in the early 1960s by master architect Kenzo Tange, its stainless steel-clad shape was ahead of its time – both in terms of its architecture and of the available technology of the day. To fix some of the resulting problems, the cathedral was re-clad after 40 years with a molybdenum-containing ferritic stainless steel certain to last a lifetime.
Stainless steel vanishes into thin air
Imagine a sculpture that shapeshifts based on the viewer's position. Physicist- turned-sculptor Julian Voss-Andreae uses stainless steel to reflect insights from discoveries made in his former profession. His "disappearing" sculptures are a meditation on perception and reality, inspired by the study of quantum physics. Now molybdenum ensures they will never truly "disappear."
Tapping into stainless steel
Italian design has always been synonymous with style and luxury, with a flair for making the functional beautiful. Whether Vespa or Ferrari, Benetton or Gucci, furniture or eyewear, Italian style imbues a touch of bellezza to all facets of life. Italian bathrooms and kitchens are no different. Sleek, moly-containing stainless steel fittings also contribute to the tradition of combining utility with elegance and glamour.
Hudson Yards: from railyard to riches
The largest private development in US history, Hudson Yards boasts a modern, sustainable design. Its prime location near the Hudson River in New York City comes at the price of exposure to both marine and de-icing salts. With corrosion resistance in mind, stainless steel emerges as an integral part of the mini-city, most notably in an interactive centerpiece called the "Vessel."
Winds of change
How can a building with a roof as thin as paper withstand typhoon force winds? A new airport in Qingdao, China, shows the world how it's done: with molybdenum- alloyed stainless steel. Known for its famous beer, Qingdao is also a major industrial and financial center. With its new infrastructure, the city hopes to attract more air travelers. The star- shaped airport features the world's largest continuously welded stainless steel roof, just 0.5 millimeters thick.
Flipping the Scripps
The Ellen Browning Scripps Memorial Pier, managed by Scripps Institute of Oceanography, is one of the world's largest research piers. Since its initial construction in 1916, scientific experiments at the pier have furthered understanding of global oceans. Replacing the pier's railings with Type 316L stainless steel posts and cable infill ensures that the research projects can continue safely into the future.
Saving Fallingwater
What was intended to be a weekend retreat for a wealthy Pittsburgh department store magnate and his family, "Fallingwater" now stands as one of the most iconic tributes to architect Frank Lloyd Wright. Molybdenum-alloyed Type 316L stainless steel plays a small but crucial role in preserving one of the greatest buildings of all time.
The Getty Center’s resilience
Perched high on a hill above Los Angeles, the Getty Center holds some of the world's greatest artwork. Just as impressive as the artwork is the pioneering resilience and sustainability of the architecture on this monumental site. Rough-cut travertine stone sets the theme on the outside, both as wall cladding and pavement. Supporting and anchoring the heavy stone façade, molybdenum-containing Type 316 stainless steel has an invisible but critical role.
Kindred Spirits in stainless steel
Almost 200 years ago, two tragedies on opposite sides of the Atlantic Ocean gave way to an unforgettable act of kindness. A stainless steel sculpture in Midleton, Ireland, now pays homage to that kindness. Nine eagle feathers, reaching over six meters high, celebrate a gift from the Choctaw Nation of the southeastern United States to the Irish during the Great Potato Famine. The sculpture is a reminder that compassion flourishes in even the darkest hours of history. The corrosion resistance of molybdenum-containing stainless steel helps the sculpture and the legacy it represents endure.
“Each autonomous, and yet together”
At the inauguration of the Nordic Embassies in Berlin in the autumn of 1999, Queen Margrethe II of Denmark formulated this motto for the future cooperation of the five Nordic countries. Twenty years later, this unique project is still making a statement about international friendship – and the lasting, low maintenance beauty of molybdenum- containing stainless steel.
Supplying water in the desert
Qatar, which the World Resource Institute lists as the world's most water-stressed country, is currently building a number of mega reservoirs to ensure a safe water supply for its growing population. Molybdenum-containing stainless steel dowel bars are helping to tackle this incredible challenge.
Adding a splash of color
Who said skyscrapers must all be uniformly gray? Electrochemically colored stainless steel adds some whimsy to Seattle's new Doppler Building. The invigorating stripes of color serve as an antidote to the city's often cloudy skies. Below these stripes, a series of stainless steel sculptures at the building's base demonstrate another artistic application of this unique metal.
Supporting communication cables
Stainless steel lashing wire plays an important part in telecommunication. It keeps aerial cables firmly in place and reduces the risk of cable breaks and service interruptions. Molybdenum-containing stainless steel lashing wire is used particularly in coastal areas to avoid premature corrosion failure of this essential support structure.
Innovative bridge uses stainless steel
Iconic bridges that combine cutting edge technology and aesthetic beauty are increasingly used to create visual focal points in city centers, but very few are constructed on modest budgets and ahead of schedule.
Stainless steel sparkles in NYC
The iconic New York City skyline is celebrated in movies and photos. But as a global financial, cultural and business center, it is also constantly changing – particularly now. Buildings are rising at a breathtaking pace and many feature sustainable designs. Molybdenum-containing stainless steel is often key to making them not only beautiful, but also resilient and durable, thus reducing their carbon footprint.
New horizons for London’s tigers
ZSL London Zoo is often noted for its architecture as well as its animals. A revolutionary new enclosure, built from molybdenum-containing stainless steel mesh, maintains the Zoo’s proud tradition of innovation. It creates a bespoke environment for Sumatran tigers, meeting all the big cats’ needs.
One hundred years of safety
A gigantic airtight enclosure is under construction at Chernobyl. It is designed to survive temperature extremes, earthquakes and tornados and prevent corrosion in order to protect the environment from the encapsulated but still dangerous reactor. Clad in molybdenum-grade Type 316L stainless steel, the structure will safely contain radioactive dust and debris for more than a century.
Moly rescues a lady in distress
Since its dedication in New York harbor on October 28, 1886, The Statue of Liberty has become one of the world’s best-known sculptures. However, after nearly 100 years in the aggressive marine environment, galvanic corrosion between the iron framework and the copper skin caused major structural deterioration. Molybdenum-containing stainless steel played a crucial role in restoring this iconic landmark.
Mobile cranes reach higher
Today’s global demand to build infrastructure larger, faster and higher challenges crane manufacturers to keep pace by developing more powerful, versatile and cost-effective equipment. Molybdenum-containing high- and ultra-high-strength steels allow them to push performance boundaries to new heights.


Sustainable Stainless Steel Transit Station Design
released in 2012
Wrapped with Stainless Steel: Sustainable Facade and Roof - Chinese
released in 2012
Designing on the Waterfront - Avoiding corrosion failures with metal - Chinese
released in 2012
Stainless Steel Inspires Design Metamorphosis
released in 2009
Deicing Salt - Recognizing The Corrosion Threat
released in 2009
Stainless Steel Reinforcing Bars (rebars)
released in 2007