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Architecure, Building & Construction


Gardens of stainless steel
Located outside the Chinese city of Nanjing, the Jiangsu Garden Expo recreates famous classical gardens from across Jiangsu province. The 3.5 km2 park is an outstanding example of regenerating a degraded environment into a living museum furnished with hotels, restaurants, and entertainment. Stainless steel features prominently throughout the Expo.
Molybdenum in magnetically shielded rooms
Detecting nature's tiniest magnetic activity for medicine and research relies on suppressing a constant barrage of external magnetic influence. For decades, a molybdenum-containing alloy called mu-metal has been used as a magnetic shielding material due to its ability to divert both the Earth's natural magnetic field and manmade sources. Today, rooms clad in layers of mu-metal and similar alloys provide unfathomable levels of magnetic shielding for procedures that save lives and extend the frontiers of science.
Sluice gates brave the shifting tides
Sluice gates are movable barriers that regulate water levels and flow rates in waterways. In a world of changing climate and increased flooding risks, these gates need to be taller and stronger than ever before. Thanks to their strength and corrosion resistance, molybdenum- containing duplex stainless steels are the ideal construction material.
Printing a stainless steel dragon
Most 3D printed objects are less than 30 cm long. So, how is the 10 m long Oregon Dragon Bench possible? Instead of using powder, the bench was built layer by layer applying a robotic welding technology called "WAAM". Made with 2209 duplex stainless steel weld wire, the Oregon Dragon Bench exemplifies how 3D printed metal structures can do more with less.
Keeping Tabs
Under the guidance of supporting philanthropists, artists and architects, a group of school children turned trash into a timeless memorial. Keeping Tabs holds six million soda tabs, each symbolizing a life lost decades ago. Molybdenum-alloyed stainless steel provides the corrosion resistance to keep this sculpture beautiful and untarnished through the deicing salt-laden winters of the midwestern United States.
Replacing old rail bridges
The historic center of Stockholm, Sweden, stretches over 14 islands. The bridges that connect these islands are in constant use, so any maintenance closures cut off vital transportation arteries. A solution that spares future generations from disruption was therefore crucial for the renovation of the city's busiest rail bridges: the four Söderströms. The new molybdenum-containing duplex stainless steel superstructure will provide enough strength and corrosion resistance to outlast the 120-year design life, with minimal upkeep.
Shenzhen’s secondary water supply systems
One in three people worldwide live without access to clean drinking water. Even major cities with established utilities are projected to fall short of demand for potable water. One of these cities is Shenzhen: China's first free-trade zone and unofficial innovation capital. An ambitious plan specifies molybdenum-containing Type 316 stainless steel distribution systems as a solution to water loss.
Behind the green curtain
For most of human history, construction methods developed in response to the local climatic conditions. But in recent decades, the seemingly infinite availability of energy, labor and building materials led architects, developers and clients to overlook these time-tested techniques. A new plant in Vietnam revisits the region's traditional building methods and combines them with modern materials to create a spectacular and sustainable green wall made of molybdenum-containing stainless steel ropes and nets.
Resurrecting St. Mary’s Cathedral
In a city where Shinto shrines and Buddhist temples abound, a Catholic cathedral is an unexpected sight. Nonetheless, Tokyo's St. Mary's Cathedral is one of the world's most famous churches. Designed in the early 1960s by master architect Kenzo Tange, its stainless steel-clad shape was ahead of its time – both in terms of its architecture and of the available technology of the day. To fix some of the resulting problems, the cathedral was re-clad after 40 years with a molybdenum-containing ferritic stainless steel certain to last a lifetime.
Stainless steel vanishes into thin air
Imagine a sculpture that shapeshifts based on the viewer's position. Physicist- turned-sculptor Julian Voss-Andreae uses stainless steel to reflect insights from discoveries made in his former profession. His "disappearing" sculptures are a meditation on perception and reality, inspired by the study of quantum physics. Now molybdenum ensures they will never truly "disappear."
Tapping into stainless steel
Italian design has always been synonymous with style and luxury, with a flair for making the functional beautiful. Whether Vespa or Ferrari, Benetton or Gucci, furniture or eyewear, Italian style imbues a touch of bellezza to all facets of life. Italian bathrooms and kitchens are no different. Sleek, moly-containing stainless steel fittings also contribute to the tradition of combining utility with elegance and glamour.
Hudson Yards: from railyard to riches
The largest private development in US history, Hudson Yards boasts a modern, sustainable design. Its prime location near the Hudson River in New York City comes at the price of exposure to both marine and de-icing salts. With corrosion resistance in mind, stainless steel emerges as an integral part of the mini-city, most notably in an interactive centerpiece called the "Vessel."
Winds of change
How can a building with a roof as thin as paper withstand typhoon force winds? A new airport in Qingdao, China, shows the world how it's done: with molybdenum- alloyed stainless steel. Known for its famous beer, Qingdao is also a major industrial and financial center. With its new infrastructure, the city hopes to attract more air travelers. The star- shaped airport features the world's largest continuously welded stainless steel roof, just 0.5 millimeters thick.
Flipping the Scripps
The Ellen Browning Scripps Memorial Pier, managed by Scripps Institute of Oceanography, is one of the world's largest research piers. Since its initial construction in 1916, scientific experiments at the pier have furthered understanding of global oceans. Replacing the pier's railings with Type 316L stainless steel posts and cable infill ensures that the research projects can continue safely into the future.
Saving Fallingwater
What was intended to be a weekend retreat for a wealthy Pittsburgh department store magnate and his family, "Fallingwater" now stands as one of the most iconic tributes to architect Frank Lloyd Wright. Molybdenum-alloyed Type 316L stainless steel plays a small but crucial role in preserving one of the greatest buildings of all time.
The Getty Center’s resilience
Perched high on a hill above Los Angeles, the Getty Center holds some of the world's greatest artwork. Just as impressive as the artwork is the pioneering resilience and sustainability of the architecture on this monumental site. Rough-cut travertine stone sets the theme on the outside, both as wall cladding and pavement. Supporting and anchoring the heavy stone façade, molybdenum-containing Type 316 stainless steel has an invisible but critical role.
Kindred Spirits in stainless steel
Almost 200 years ago, two tragedies on opposite sides of the Atlantic Ocean gave way to an unforgettable act of kindness. A stainless steel sculpture in Midleton, Ireland, now pays homage to that kindness. Nine eagle feathers, reaching over six meters high, celebrate a gift from the Choctaw Nation of the southeastern United States to the Irish during the Great Potato Famine. The sculpture is a reminder that compassion flourishes in even the darkest hours of history. The corrosion resistance of molybdenum-containing stainless steel helps the sculpture and the legacy it represents endure.
“Each autonomous, and yet together”
At the inauguration of the Nordic Embassies in Berlin in the autumn of 1999, Queen Margrethe II of Denmark formulated this motto for the future cooperation of the five Nordic countries. Twenty years later, this unique project is still making a statement about international friendship – and the lasting, low maintenance beauty of molybdenum- containing stainless steel.
Supplying water in the desert
Qatar, which the World Resource Institute lists as the world's most water-stressed country, is currently building a number of mega reservoirs to ensure a safe water supply for its growing population. Molybdenum-containing stainless steel dowel bars are helping to tackle this incredible challenge.
Restoring the George
Hundreds of thousands of vehicles hurry across the George Washington Bridge every day. The aging bridge is one of only three ways to enter Manhattan from New Jersey by car, and it sees more vehicle traffic than any other bridge on Earth. But it is in need of critical repairs. Coming to George's aid is Type 316LN stainless steel rebar, which will revitalize the crumbling concrete decks of this most important passageway.
From rails, to ruins, to rebirth
The High Line, a truly unique New York City park, started life as a railway thoroughfare from one end of the city to the other, transporting goods high above the congested streets. After years of neglect and deterioration, the High Line has been reinvented as a dazzling, elevated public space, thanks in no small part to molybdenum-containing stainless steel used in its reconstruction.
Supporting communication cables
Stainless steel lashing wire plays an important part in telecommunication. It keeps aerial cables firmly in place and reduces the risk of cable breaks and service interruptions. Molybdenum-containing stainless steel lashing wire is used particularly in coastal areas to avoid premature corrosion failure of this essential support structure.
Innovative bridge uses stainless steel
Iconic bridges that combine cutting edge technology and aesthetic beauty are increasingly used to create visual focal points in city centers, but very few are constructed on modest budgets and ahead of schedule.
Stainless steel sparkles in NYC
The iconic New York City skyline is celebrated in movies and photos. But as a global financial, cultural and business center, it is also constantly changing – particularly now. Buildings are rising at a breathtaking pace and many feature sustainable designs. Molybdenum-containing stainless steel is often key to making them not only beautiful, but also resilient and durable, thus reducing their carbon footprint.
New horizons for London’s tigers
ZSL London Zoo is often noted for its architecture as well as its animals. A revolutionary new enclosure, built from molybdenum-containing stainless steel mesh, maintains the Zoo’s proud tradition of innovation. It creates a bespoke environment for Sumatran tigers, meeting all the big cats’ needs.
One hundred years of safety
A gigantic airtight enclosure is under construction at Chernobyl. It is designed to survive temperature extremes, earthquakes and tornados and prevent corrosion in order to protect the environment from the encapsulated but still dangerous reactor. Clad in molybdenum-grade Type 316L stainless steel, the structure will safely contain radioactive dust and debris for more than a century.
Moly rescues a lady in distress
Since its dedication in New York harbor on October 28, 1886, The Statue of Liberty has become one of the world’s best-known sculptures. However, after nearly 100 years in the aggressive marine environment, galvanic corrosion between the iron framework and the copper skin caused major structural deterioration. Molybdenum-containing stainless steel played a crucial role in restoring this iconic landmark.
Mobile cranes reach higher
Today’s global demand to build infrastructure larger, faster and higher challenges crane manufacturers to keep pace by developing more powerful, versatile and cost-effective equipment. Molybdenum-containing high- and ultra-high-strength steels allow them to push performance boundaries to new heights.
Stainless rebar keeps traffic flowing
Whether on local streets or major highways, bridges are crucial transportation links – crossing roads, canyons or vast expanses of water. Closing them for repairs causes lengthy delays, time- and fuel-consuming detours and loss of productivity. It is therefore imperative for traffic flow to keep bridges in good condition. Durable molybdenum-containing stainless steel reinforcing bar is increasingly used to extend the service life of new and refurbished bridges, reducing the need for repairs and improving infrastructure investments.
Duplex rigging for glass sails
Canadian-born California architect Frank Gehry’s project for Fondation Louis Vuitton exhibits unprecedented aesthetic innovation and technological sophistication. The spectacular glass sails of the roof appear so light and airy, in large part, thanks to the delicate high-strength molybdenum-containing duplex stainless steel support structure.
Reinforcing cliffs and walls
Type 316 stainless steel ground and rock anchors keep land from sliding and walls from tumbling. They were used recently to stabilize and reinforce a crucial sea wall in England and an unstable rock face at the Acropolis World Heritage Site in Greece. Molybdenum provides the added corrosion resistance necessary for a long service life even in the most corrosive environments.
Designing a memorial
Pittsburgh has a new memorial made of stainless steel, glass and stone. The work of art is a tribute to the citizenry of Western Pennsylvania. Its building materials are a reflection of the local surroundings and the industries that shaped the region. Thanks to the use of low-maintenance molybdenum-containing stainless steel the area will be graced with a memorial that is both beautiful and lasting.
An ever-changing masterpiece
If a building becomes architecture, then it is art. (Arne Jacobson)
Structural stainless steel
Decorative stainless steel panels are widely used in façades, roofs and elevators because they are attractive and long-lasting. Increasingly, engineers now use stainless steel for load-bearing structures in challenging environments. In many cases stainless steel is cost-effective if the whole life cycle of the installation is considered.
Coloring the world
Molybdenum compounds have been used in commercial pigments for over a hundred years. They continue to play an important role in today’s sustainable and environmentally safe colorings.
Stainless steel fish scale façade
Molybdenum-containing ferritic stainless steel plays an important role in sustainable construction at the new headquarters of the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers in Seattle, Washington. The material was utilized in the innovative façade, which helped the building win many awards for its cost- and energy-saving features.
Molybdenum scrap saves resources
A recent study found that about one quarter of the molybdenum used each year is recycled material from scrap sources. The rest is newly mined, primary molybdenum. Scrap therefore plays an important role in meeting demand and contributing to sustainability.
Material longevity and its inherent impact on long-term project sustainability are changing the way buildings are designed. Memorials like the new Four Freedoms Park in New York have to last for hundreds of years. Corrosion resistant 2205 duplex stainless steel was necessary so that the sculptural handrails were as durable as the massive blocks of granite in this highly-acclaimed new monument.
Preserving Acropolis artifacts
The thoughts of Socrates and his ancient Greek contemporaries are a foundation of western civilization. The Acropolis and its most famous building, the Parthenon, are physical reminders of our debt to these philosophers. Moly helps to sustain the legacy of these sites in the beautiful new Acropolis Museum, which contains many components made of moly-containing Type 316 stainless steel. The longevity of stainless steel ensures the museum will serve its purpose well for years to come.
Stainless steel weaves its web
Stainless steel wire and rod are used to manufacture a wide variety of woven steel mesh products. They are used in many applications ranging from the eye-catching and spectacular to the unobtrusive and utilitarian. Molybdenum contributes to their growing popularity and success by improving corrosion resistance.
High-strength steel – sustainable and money saving
Molybdenum’s unique properties are often used to deliver sustainability advantages in energy production, energy efficiency, resource conservation and environmental protection. The newly-constructed Friends Arena in Solna Municipality, Stockholm, is a great example of how “a little moly goes a long way” in reducing the environmental impact of a new building and saving cost at the same time.
Super duplex to keep the Vasa safe
A major historic ship preservation project is currently under way in Stockholm.  The galvanized and epoxy coated mild steel bolts used to hold the ship together after it was raised are failing due to corrosion. Molybdenum is a key alloying element in the high-strength, corrosion-resistant super duplex stainless steel Sandvik SAF 2507TM and Sandvik SAF 2707 HDTM bolts that will hold the great ship Vasa together to achieve a minimum design life of 100 years.


Sustainable Stainless Steel Transit Station Design
released in 2012
Wrapped with Stainless Steel: Sustainable Facade and Roof - Chinese
released in 2012
Designing on the Waterfront - Avoiding corrosion failures with metal - Chinese
released in 2012
Stainless Steel Inspires Design Metamorphosis
released in 2009
Deicing Salt - Recognizing The Corrosion Threat
released in 2009
Stainless Steel Reinforcing Bars (rebars)
released in 2007
Successful Stainless Swimming Pool Design
released in 2005