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Physical metallurgy of Molybdenum in carbon steels

Molybdenum as an alloying element has a unique spectrum of metallurgical effects enabling a large variety of processing options. The various physical metallurgical interactions of molybdenum during steel processing efficiently promote microstructural features contributing to enhanced strength and toughness. It also allows achieving the desired strength level at reduced carbon equivalent (CE), thus improving weldability.


  • Phase Transformation and Hardenability of Medium Carbon Alloy Steels by W.W. Cias : Climax Molybdenum Company, 1972.
  • Steels; Microstructures and Properties by R.W.K. Honeycombe
  • Functions of the Alloying Elements in Steel by E.C. Bain, ASM 1939
  • Molybdenum’s Place in the Pressure Vessel Field. By R G Dunn, G F Whiteley, W Fairhurst, Climax Molybdenum Company 1970 
  • Steel Deterioration in Hydrogen - What API-sponsored Research has explained. Preprint 63-67, API (May 16, 1967)