The Jin Mao, Shanghai, China façade is Type 316 stainless steel and exposed to coastal salt and pollution. Courtesy C. Houska
US coastal private residence with Type 316 stainless steel roof and wall panels. Courtesy C. Houska
Cloud Gate sculpture, Chicago, welded Type 316L stainless steel plate that is exposed to deicing salt. Courtesy C. Houska
Building and Construction Applications
The most commonly used alloys have been Types 304 and 316 and their low carbon versions Types 304L and 316L. The low carbon versions are only needed when sections 0.125 inches (3.2 mm) thick and greater will be welded. The molybdenum addition to Types 316/316L makes them more resistant to chloride salts (coastal and deicing) and to pollution related corrosion.
Early architectural projects, built some 50 or more years ago, were constructed in Type 302, which is equivalent to modern Type 304. While Types 304/304L and their predecessor Type 302 were widely used historically for building and construction applications, Type 316/316L and sometimes more corrosion-resistant stainless steel alloys are increasingly being specified for exterior and sheltered applications.
This has occurred because of increasing global use of deicing salts, population concentration in coastal areas, and high pollution levels and rain acidity in developing countries. Sheltered areas are even more corrosive because they accumulate the same environmental contaminants but do not benefit from natural rain-washing. Austenitic grades with even greater corrosion resistance are used for industrial and seawater applications.
IMOA’s Stainless Steel Selection System, Case studies, Coastal Salt, Deicing Salt and other website resources provide alloy selection guidance.
Design and Fabrication
Many other brochures are available to provide guidance on different aspects of design and fabrication. They can be downloaded as part of the Stainless Steel Library or individually. Some of these are:
Stainless Steels in Architecture Building and Construction: Guidelines for Corrosion Prevention, Nickel Institute brochure 11024
Erection and Installation of Stainless Steel Components, EuroInox
Adhesive Bonding of Stainless Steels, EuroInox
Bending Stainless Steel Tube – Design Benefits in Engineering and Architecture, EuroInox
Stainless Steels: Tables of Fabrication Parameters, EuroInox
The Forming Potential of Stainless Steel, EuroInox