Biosynthesis of Sulfur-Containing Small Biomolecules in Plants
Sulfur is an essential element required for plant growth. It can be found as a thiol group of proteins or non-protein molecules, and as various sulfur-containing small biomolecules, including iron-sulfur (Fe/S) clusters, molybdenum cofactor (Moco), and sulfur-modified nucleotides. Thiol-mediated redox regulation has been well investigated, whereas biosynthesis pathways of the sulfur-containing small biomolecules have not yet been clearly described. In order to understand overall sulfur transfer processes in plant cells, it is important to elucidate the relationships among various sulfur delivery pathways as well as to investigate their interactions. In this review, we summarize the information from recent studies on the biosynthesis pathways of several sulfur-containing small biomolecules and the proteins participating in these processes. In addition, we show characteristic features of gene expression in Arabidopsis at the early stage of sulfate depletion from the medium, and we provide insights into sulfur transfer processes in plant cells.
Y. Nakai, and A. Maruyama-Nakashita,Biosynthesis of Sulfur-Containing Small Biomolecules in Plants, International journal of molecular sciences, 2020, 21. 3470.
The influence of MoO3-NPs on agro-morphological criteria, genomic stability of DNA, biochemical assay, and production of common dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)
Molybdenum is considered one of the most important micronutrients applied as a foliar fertilizer for common dry bean. In this study, molybdenum oxide nanoparticles (MoO3-NPs) were applied in different concentrations (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 ppm) over two sequent seasons, 2018 and 2019, to investigate their effect on the plant morphological criteria, yield, and the genomic stability of DNA. The results showed that the application of 40 ppm MoO3-NPs as a foliar fertilizer showed preferable values of plant morphological criteria, such as the number of leaves and branches per plant, as well as the fresh and dry weight with regard to the common bean plant. In addition, the seed yield increased by 82.4% and 84.1% with 40 ppm, while the shoot residue increased by 32.2% and 32.1% with 20 ppm of MoO3-NPs during two seasons, 2018 and 2019, respectively. Furthermore, the common bean treated with 20 and 40 ppm MoO3-NPs had positive unique bands with ISSR primer 848 at 1400 bp (Rf 0.519) and with primer ISSR2M at 200 bp (Rf 0.729), respectively. In addition, SDS-PAGE reveald some proteins in seedlings which were absent in the flowering stage at 154, 102, 64, 37 and 34 KDa, which may be due to differences in plant proteins required for metabolic processes in each stage. In conclusion, the application of 40 ppm MoO3-NPs was more effective on the productivity of the common bean plants.
S. A. Osman, D. M. Salama, M. E. Abd El-Aziz, E. A. Shaaban, and M. S. Abd Elwahed,The influence of MoO3-NPs on agro-morphological criteria, genomic stability of DNA, biochemical assay, and production of common dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 2020, 151, 77-87.
Molybdenum in plants and soils
Molybdenum is essential to plant growth as a component of the enzymes nitrate reductase and nitrogenase. Legumes need more molybdenum than other crops, such as grass or corn, because the symbiotic bacteria living in the root nodules of legumes require molybdenum for the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. If insufficient molybdenum is available nodulation will be retarded and the amount of nitrogen fixed by the plant will be limited. If other factors are not limiting the amount of molybdenum will determine the amount of nitrogen fixed by the plant. Increasingly vigorous plant growth, higher protein contents and greater buildup of nitrogen in the plant and soil accompany nodulation and symbiotic microbial activity.
Albrigo, L. G., Szafranck, R. C.and Childers, N. F., The Role of Molybdenum in Plants and Soils, Climax Molybdenum Co., Supplemental volume, 1966.
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Response of chickpea (cicer arietinum) to molybdenum in moderately-alkaline soil
A pot experiment was conducted at ICAR-Indian Institute of Pulses Research, Kanpur during 2010-12 to assess the response of chickpea crop to molybdenum (Mo) in moderately-alkaline Inceptisol (pH 8.0-8.1). Soil application of Mo at 1 kg/ha increased the grain yield by 7.8-11.9% (P<0.05). However, the Mo seed treatment (4 g/kg seed) had a marginal and mostly non-significant effect on growth and yield attributes of chickpea. The higher aboveground dry matter (10.0-19.3%), root weight (11.6-12.5%), nodule weight (7.1-12.1%), and pod number per plant (11.8-22.0%) were observed with soil application of Mo over control treatment. Notably, a negative interaction (P<0.05) between phosphorus and Mo was noticed for aboveground growth of chickpea. Thus, Mo was observed as a limiting nutrient for chickpea in moderately-alkaline soil and application of Mo at 1 kg/ha to soil may be recommended to harvest the potential productivity of chickpea.
M. S. Venkatesh, K. K. Hazra, P. K. Ghosh, S. S. Singh, S. K. Chaturvedi, and N. P. Singh, Response of chickpea (cicer arietinum) to molybdenum in moderately-alkaline soil, Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 2020, 90, 58-63.
Chemometric optimization of the methodology for determination of molybdenum in soils and plants by square wave adsorptive stripping voltammetry
The method is based on the adsorptive accumulation of complex molybdenum(VI) with 8-hydroxyquinoline, using voltammetric square wave cathodic stripping voltammetry. The composition and concentration of the supporting electrolyte. frequency (Hz), amplitude (mV) and deposition time (s), were optimized by factorial design in relation to current reduction of molybdenum(VI). The optimum methodology provided the following values for the process variables: scan increase (0.5 mV), pulse amplitude (127 mV), frequency (96 Hz). adsorption time (80 s) and drop size (0.60 mm 2 ), the concentration of KNO3 (2.0 mol L-1), acetate buffer (0.5 mol L-1) and 8-hydroxyquinoline (0.01 mol L-1). The results obtained after optimization showed a linear response in the range from 1.0 to 6.0 mg L-1 and limits of detection and quantification, respectively equal to 0.02 and 0.08 mg L-1. The molybdenum contained in the samples were determined using the optimized methodology, with values consistent with the values determined by atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-AES).
J. R. de Carvalho, E. L. Reis, C. Reis, O. I. C. Damasceno, A. A. Neves, and A. A. Matias, Chemometric optimization of the methodology for determination of molybdenum in soils and plants by square wave adsorptive stripping voltammetry, Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society, 2020, 31, 716-723.