For a review see
Metal passivity as mechanism of metal carcinogenesis: Chromium, nickel, iron, copper, cobalt, platinum, molybdenum, CORNELIA RICHARDSON-BOEDLER Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry, Jan–Mar 2007; 89(1): 15–70.
There are indications of a relationship between molybdenum deficiency and the development of various tumours. The incidence of oesophageal cancer in areas of South Africa varies depending on location [Davies, 1975; Rose, 1968; Burrell et al., 1966]. The gardens of a group of Bantu women who died of cancer were less fertile and less productive than those of tumour-free women. Severe signs of molybdenum deficiency were noted in plants grown in gardens of the cancer sufferers. It is suggested that the molybdenum deficiency resulted in the plants being more prone to attack by fungi, e.g. Aspergillus flavus, which has been implicated as a cause of liver cancer in animals. The distribution of molybdenum in mouse liver and Sarcoma 180 was determined following the intraperitoneal injection daily for 6 d of various molybdenum compounds [Caruthers and Regelson, 1963]. With Na4SiMol2O40, MoCl5, and MoBr2 there was an accumulation of molybdenum in the liver and the tumour but with (NH4)6Mo7O24.4H2O and Mo3(H2C2O4).2H2O there was no such accumulation. The copper and zinc contents of the liver and the tumour were not affected by any of the molybdenum compounds nor was the growth rate of the tumour. It is possibly relevant that the concentration of xanthine oxidase is relatively low in various tumours and that tumour growth in mice was decreased by treatment with xanthine oxidase concentrates [Bray, 1963].
Davies, I. J. T., Intake (British Medical Journal. Advertiser's Supplement), 1975, 39, 4.
Rose, E. F., Cancer Research, 1968, 28, 2390.
Burrell, R. J. W., Roach, W. A. and Shadwell, A., J. Nat. Cancer Inst., 1966, 36, 201, 211.
Caruthers C.and Regelson, W.,Oncologia, 1963, 16, 101.
Bray, R. C., in The Enzymes, ed. Boyer, P. D., Hardy, L. and Myrback, K., Academic Press, New York, 2nd Edn., 1963, 7, 533.
Structures, DNA binding, DNA cleavage, and antitumor investigations of a series of molybdenum(VI) complexes with some N(4) methyl and ethyl thiosemicarbazone ligands
Four dioxomolybdenum(VI) complexes were synthesized by reaction of [MoO2(acac)2] with thiosemicarbazones derived from 5-allyl-2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde (1), 2-hydroxynaphthaldehyde (2), 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (3), or 5-tert-butyl-2-hydroxybenzaldehyde (4).
The ligands were coordinated to molybdenum as tridentate ONS donors. X-ray crystallography showed that the distorted octahedral coordination of molybdenum is completed by methanol (D) in 1a, 3a, and 4a or H2O in 2a. The molecular structures of 1, 3, and 4, and the complexes were determined by single-crystal X-ray crystallography.
Binding of the ligand and complexes with calf thymus DNA were investigated by UV, fluorescence titrations, and viscosity measurements.
Gel electrophoresis revealed that all the complexes can cleave pBR322 plasmid DNA.
The cytotoxic properties of the complexes against human colorectal (HCT 116) cell line showed strong antiproliferative activities in relative order 4a > 3a > 1a > 2a with IC50 values of 1.6, 4.0, 4.8, and 6.7 mu M, respectively.
The complexes exhibited more activity than the standard reference drug, 5-fluorouracil (IC50 7.3 mu M).
These studies show that dioxomolybdenum(VI) complexes have potential use in chemotherapy
Hussein, M. A., Guan, T. S., Haque, R. A., Ahamed, M. B. K., and Majid, A. M. S. A., Structures, DNA binding, DNA cleavage, and antitumor investigations of a series of molybdenum(VI) complexes with some N(4) methyl and ethyl thiosemicarbazone ligands, Journal of Coordination Chemistry, 2014, 67, 714-727Water soluble molybdenocene complexes: Synthesis, cytotoxic activity and binding studies to ubiquitin by fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism and molecular modeling
Four new molybdenocene complexes, Cp2Mo(L-ascorbato), Cp2Mo(6-O-palmitoyl-L-ascorbato), [Cp2Mo(ethyl maltolato)]Cl and Cp2Mo((2S)-2-amino-3-methyl-3-thiolato-butanoato), were synthesized and structurally characterized by standard analytical methods.
The cytotoxicity of these complexes was assessed on colon HT-29 and breast MCF-7 cancer cell lines using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-y1)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay.
A higher cytotoxic activity was shown by all the new complexes on the MCF-7 cells over the Cp2MoCl2 complex.
The complexes Cp2Mo(L-ascorbato), Cp2Mo(6-O-palmitoyl-L-ascorbato) and [Cp2Mo(ethyl maltolato)]Cl displayed a stronger cytotoxic activity on colon cancer HT-29 cell line, over the molybdenocene dichloride (Cp2MoCl2).
In contrast, Cp2Mo((2S)-2-amino-3-methyl-3-thiolato-butanoato) exhibited proliferative properties on this cell line.
Ubiquitin (Ub)-molybdenocene interactions were investigated using cyclic voltammetry, fluorescence quenching spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) and molecular modeling. The thermodynamic parameters (Delta H and Delta S) obtained using fluorescence quenching spectra and van't Hoff plot indicate the Ub-molybdenocene interactions are mainly hydrophobic. The CD data also support hydrophobic interactions with conformational changes in the Ub protein. Docking studies using molecular modeling revealed the amino adds involved in the Ub-molybdenocene interactions and corroborated the hydrophobic nature of the binding combined with hydrogen bonding. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc All rights reserved
Narvaez-Pita, X., Ortega-Zuniga, C., Acevedo-Morantes, C. Y., Pastrana, B., Olivero-Verbel, J., Maldonado-Rojas, W., Ramirez-Vick, J. E., and Melendez, E., Water soluble molybdenocene complexes: Synthesis, cytotoxic activity and binding studies to ubiquitin by fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism and molecular modeling, Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, 2014, 132, 77-91.Low Cytotoxicity of Inorganic Nanotubes and Fullerene-Like Nanostructures in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells: Relation to Inflammatory Gene Induction and Antioxidant Response
The cytotoxicity of tungsten disulfide nano tubes (INT-WS2) and inorganic fullerene-like molybdenum disulfide (IF-MoS2) nanoparticles (NPs) used in industrial and medical applications was evaluated in comparison to standard environmental particulate matter.
The IF-MoS2 and INT-WS2 reside in vesicles/inclusion bodies, suggestive of. endocytic vesicles. In cells representing the respiratory, immune and metabolic systems, both IF-MoS2 and INT-WS2 NPs remained nontoxic compared to equivalent concentrations (up to 100 mu g/mL in the medium) of silica dioxide (SiO2), diesel engine-derived and carbon black NPs, which induced cell death.
Associating with this biocompatibility of IF-MoS2INT-WS2, we demonstrate in nontransformed human bronchial cells (NL-20) relative low induction of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-alpha.
Moreover, IF-MoS2 and INT-WS2 activated antioxidant response as measured by the antioxidant response element (ARE) using a luciferase reporter, and induced Nrf2-mediated Phase II detoxification genes.
Collectively, our findings suggest that the lower cytotoxicity of IF-MoS2 and INT-WS2 NPs does not reflect general biological inertness. Rather, compared to other NP's, it likely results from decreased proinflammatory activation, but a comparable significant capacity to induce protective antioxidant/detoxification defense mechanisms
Pardo, M., Shuster-Meiseles, T., Levin-Zaidman, S., Rudich, A., and Rudich, Y., Low Cytotoxicity of Inorganic Nanotubes and Fullerene-Like Nanostructures in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells: Relation to Inflammatory Gene Induction and Antioxidant Response, Environmental Science & Technology, 2014, 48, 3457-3466