November 2015

Welcome to ‘Stainless Solutions’ from IMOA. Each month, we will cover a different stainless steel issue with tips on design and specification, and links to technical resources.  This month we are discussing stainless selection in New York City, which is representative of many urban areas around the world.
Cutting Edge Pedestrian Bridge Design

Pedestrian bridges allow designers to create unique sculptural structures which often become focal points and tourist attractions in addition to their primary purpose.  The most creative designs allow engineers to explore new materials and experiment with new design concepts. Some of the world’s most spectacular recent pedestrian bridges have used duplex and austenitic stainless steels in locations around the world.

With strength levels higher than carbon steel structural sections (36 or 50 ksi (250 or 450 MPa)), duplex stainless steels have become increasingly popular as a means to reduce structural section sizes and bridge weight.

In November 2015, two spectacular arched duplex stainless steel bridges were announced for Fort York Park in Toronto. They are Canada’s first stainless steel bridges and were designed by Pedelta.

Another spectacular North American example is the multi-award winning San Diego Harbor Drive Bridge (2011). Designed by T.Y. Lin, it is one of the world’s longest (550 feet or 170 meter) self-anchored pedestrian bridges. High strength 2205 duplex stainless steel provided the required corrosion resistance given the harbor location, and made the elegant lightweight design possible. Credit Nathan Rupert

In the Middle East, the Lusail Development Project in Qatar includes two intertwined (656 feet or 200 meter) 2205 duplex stainless steel pedestrian bridges designed by Safdie Rabines Architects and T. Y. Lin.

The Helix bridge in Singapore (2010) links the Marina South and Marina Centre developments. The high strength 2205 duplex stainless steel made it possible for Arup to dramatically reduce the bridge weight compared to a carbon steel design. Credit N. Kinsman

There have been many spectacular stainless steel bridges in Europe because Eurocode 3 Part 1-4 was the first international design guidance for large austenitic and duplex stainless steel structural sections. The EuroInox brochure ‘Pedestrian Bridges in Stainless Steel’ provides several examples.

The Millennium Bridge in London is one of Europe’s best-known pedestrian bridges. Designed by Foster + Partners with structural engineers Arup, it was completed in 2000 and used Type 316 stainless steel. Credit Peter Trimming

In the US, the AISC Steel Design Code 27: Structural Stainless Steel was released in 2013 and also covers larger structural sections. China is expected to add stainless steel to its structural design codes in the near future. See our structural design resources for more information.

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Continuing Education – American Institute of Architects (AIA)

IMOA is an AIA continuing education system approved provider with eight 1-hour programs that are registered for both live face-to-face and distance learning credit.

1. Stainless Steel Sustainable Design
2. Bioclimatic Design With Stainless Steel Weather Screens
3. Stainless Steel Structural Design
4. Stainless Steel Specification For Corrosive Applications
5. Deicing Salt: Stainless Steel Selection to Avoid Corrosion
6. Stainless Steel Finish Specification
7. Advanced Stainless Steel Specification and Problem Avoidance
8. Specification of Stainless Steel Finishes and Grades For Corrosive Applications

For more information or to schedule a workshop contact Catherine Houska, 412-369-0377 or email

What is IMOA?

IMOA (International Molybdenum Association) is a non-profit industry association, which provides technical information to assist with successful specification of molybdenum-containing materials. Molybdenum is an element. When it is added to stainless steel, molybdenum increases its resistance to corrosion caused by deicing salts, coastal atmosphere and pollution.

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