Design studio

This section looks at collaborative working between architects and engineers, using case studies to explore the impact of structural and environmental engineering on form and function:

Architecture, Building & Construction

Sustainable development case studies

Friends Arena, Stockholm
Molybdenum is an important alloying element in high-strength steel (HSS), which enables lighter and stronger structures than conventional steel. This study looks at the use of HSS in the Friends Arena, Stockholm, which reduced the quantity of steel used for construction by 17% and also cut greenhouse gas emissions by 17% over the lifetime of the stadium.
Federal Building, San Francisco
Sunscreens greatly reduce the need for air conditioning in buildings. The Federal Building in San Francisco was built with computer-controlled stainless steel sunscreens which, together with natural ventilation, reduce the energy needed to cool the building by two-thirds. The molybdenum-containing stainless steel is highly corrosion resistant and is specified for a design life of 100 years.
Benefits of molybdenum use: The Myllysilta Bridge, Finland
Duplex stainless steel provides exceptional resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion from chlorides, and is therefore ideally suited to areas exposed to coastal waters and deicing salts. This lifecycle analysis study compared the total environmental impacts of the use of duplex stainless steel containing 3.1% molybdenum to clad the Myllsilta bridge in Finland, compared with mild steel and zinc-epoxy paint. The study found a 62% reduction in global warming potential, a 67% reduction in eutrophication potential and a 38% reduction in non-renewable energy, over the estimated lifetime of the bridge. The selected option also reduced photochemical ozone creation potential by 99%, by dispensing with the need for anti-corrosion paint.